A new breakthrough in creating mosquito repellent textiles has been reported in a study published in the journal Materials Chemistry and Physics.
Study: Synthesis of polymeric particles with insect repellent for potential application on textile substrates. Image Credit: nechaevkon / Shutterstock.com
High performance liquid chromatography confirmed encapsulation of IR3535®, proving the effectiveness of the encapsulated active layer. Emulsion polymerization procedures generated insect repellant sub-microparticles, introducing a promising structure for protection against mosquito bites with potential applications in textiles.
Mosquito reproduction as a result of climate change
Climate change has resulted in warmer temperatures and wetter conditions, ideal for mosquito breeding. Aedes aegypti, for example, is responsible for the increase in vector-borne infectious infections. As a result, insect repellents are frequently used to protect against any of these diseases.
Effective insect repellants with varying concentrations and durations of action are commercially available and can be applied directly to the skin, embedded in textile substrates or inserted into fabrics. Meanwhile, many active insect repellents are volatile, have a short duration of protection, and in some cases cause allergic dermatitis when applied topically to the skin.
Cosmetotextiles, Textile with Active Surface
With the progress of research on textiles and clothing, recently developed textiles with a cosmetic active surface treatment, known as “cosmetotextiles”, can eventually be used with pharmaceutical and cosmetic substances applied to surfaces. textiles for wellness and wellness applications.
Microencapsulation and nanoencapsulation innovations are used in textile textures to achieve these functional effects and provide the desired level of performance with increased durability and lower evaporation rates. The encapsulated components can be incorporated into textiles at various stages of manufacture, such as preparation of fibers and yarns and impregnation in textiles and clothing; nevertheless, the comfort, breathability and affordability of the fabric must be preserved.
According to the existing literature, DEET microcapsules used in mosquito nets inhibit blood supply and kill mosquitoes for at least six months.
Encapsulation technique using nanoparticles
However, research on the residual repellency of encapsulated organic repellants has been limited to citronella microparticles applied to cotton fibers for 20 days as a safeguard against. Aedes aegypti mosquitoes.
Nanoencapsulation methods have also added features to textiles such as thermoregulation, antimicrobial coating for cotton gauzes, fire resistance, UV protection, and drug development. In addition, sub-microparticles and nanomaterials can be incorporated into the fiber during extrusion or as a textile finish.
The encapsulation process produces the nanoparticles used for the nanofinishing or surface coating of textile substrates. They are made up of spherical particles from 1 to 1000 nm with a thin outer layer (shell) that stores fluids and small solid particles or disperses solids in liquids for a defined period of time. The integration of the core and shell constructions used is an essential part of the encapsulation techniques.
New method of nanotechnology, Pickering emulsions
The “Pickering Emulsions” encapsulation method uses a variety of emulsions, including oil-in-water and water-in-oil emulsions. Rather than emulsifiers, fine particles are used to stabilize the emulsified droplets via the adsorption of solid particles on these surfaces, lowering the absolute free energy of the system.
The existence of silica nanoparticles in the form of a colloidal solid prevents the coalescence of the nanoparticles and allows regulation of coagulation. In addition, this technique allows the polymerization of hydrophobic and hydrophilic monomer units without emulsifiers or protective colloids.
This only modifies the self-aggregation of the solid particles by the interaction of particles polymerized by free radicals resulting from the dissolution of a hydrophilic initiator in an aqueous solution, activating the polymerization by resolving the double bonds of the monomers.
Results and future research
To test the performance of the textile well impregnated with the submicrorepellent to restrict the blood feeding behaviors of female mosquitoes, the researchers exposed a mouse to mosquitoes while wearing the control textile (without the submicrorepellent). In an effort to bite him, the mosquitoes probed the attractant.
No puncture was recorded on the attractant or where the tissue was implanted with the submicrorepellant. In the laboratory, this emerging evidence suggests that textiles, including with a submicrorepellant, may repel mosquitoes and decrease their host-finding abilities.
Tensile burst strengths were not affected by the submicrorepellant implanted in the tissue. Colorimetric evaluations of the exterior tissue design after insertion recognized that the color difference was comparatively imperceptible to the human eye. Finally, the in vivo the results of efficacy tests indicated that textile substances inserted with a submicrorepellant in the concentration levels used were effective in protecting against Aedes aegypti mosquito. Future research on the controlled release of repellant drugs is essential.
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Santos, D., et al. (2021) Synthesis of polymer particles with insect repellant for potential application to textile substrates. Chemistry and physics of materials. Available at: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0254058421014450